Our planet is paradise. It’s not about advertising white beaches running away into a transparent ocean. Any corner of the Earth is the best place to live. Life is in the icy wastelands, and on the slopes of mountains, in zones of radiation contamination, in deserts and swamps. Some species exist near underwater volcanoes, in an environment heated to 300 ° C, filled with hydrogen sulfide, heavy metals and various poisons. The vast territory of the planet is quite suitable for the development and reproduction of even such fragile organisms as Homo sapiens.
Let’s bring you a little invigorating optimism: science does not exclude the possibility of complex organics existing at a distance of direct contact. That’s where they are looking for life in the solar system right now.
Everything is bad. If you are living protoplasm and want to go on vacation to Mercury, choose an easier way to commit suicide. On the dayside of Mercury, the surface warms up to +430 ° С, and on the night side, it drops to –180 ° С. On the surface, temperatures are measured in hundreds of degrees above zero, although ice may well be millions of years old at the bottom of the craters.
The red planet is still considered one of the most promising areas of the cosmic expansion of life. The climate is seasonal in nature: the temperature on the planet ranges from -153 ° С at the pole in winter to more than +20 ° С at the equator at noon. The average temperature is -50 ° C. The atmosphere of Mars is 95.32% carbon dioxide.
Jupiter and its moons
There is no surface on Jupiter as such – it is a gas giant. The two main components of the atmosphere are molecular hydrogen and helium. In the lower atmosphere, the temperature is -130 ° C. The wind speed can exceed 600 km / h.
Saturn and its satellites
So, on the surface of Titan, the largest satellite, a liquid (methane and ethane) was found. The surface of Titan has not the most favourable conditions for the emergence of life – up to –180 ° C and a complete absence of oxygen. The dunes you can see in the photo above are formed by hydrocarbons.
The ice giant, whose atmosphere consists of hydrogen and helium, is not conducive to the presence of life – it is the coldest planet in the solar system, with a recorded surface temperature of –224 ° C.
The farthest (sorry, Pluto) planet in the solar system with an average temperature of −200 ° C and winds reaching almost supersonic speeds – about 600 m / s. A gas giant with all the ensuing difficulties for life.
In 2006, by the decision of the International Astronomical Union, Pluto was deprived of the status of a full-fledged planet and recognized as a dwarf planet, but this does not prevent us from looking there in search of life. Pluto’s surface is 98% nitrogen ice. The great distance from the Sun and the absence of geothermal sources exclude the presence of conditions suitable for the development of life.
Oddly enough, planet Earth is still the main proof of the existence of life. Enceladus-like conditions exist in Lake Mono in California, where the GFAJ-1 bacteria live in concentrations of arsenic and salt that are lethal to other organisms.
The existence of organisms on Earth that are distinguished by an exceptional ability to survive in extreme conditions gives hope to find life not only on distant planets but also where people can visit in the coming decades.